- Understanding aviation noise
- Airport environment
Many stakeholders could potentially help to mitigate aviation noise. Who are they and which are their responsibilities?
This chapter summarises each stakeholder’s role regarding environmental noise impact reduction and building of community awareness. However, there are no universal solutions, and these stakeholder roles vary from one country to another depending on countries’ specific regulation.
Collaboration amongst all stakeholders in communication forums is essential to cover all of the aspects and responsibilities necessary for finding a consensus and the solution to the problem. A Collaborative Environmental Management (CEM) system would also be helpful, perhaps led by the airport operator or, even better, by an independent body, which would bring together all stakeholders impacted by the aviation noise and those who can influence it.
Below are the main stakeholders of the airport and communities and their specific roles and responsibilities regarding aviation noise awareness and reduction.
- Airlines, aircraft operators & industry
- Air services
- Civil Aviation Authority
- Environment authorities
- Local authorities
- Independent bodies
- Participate in the design and implementation of ground noise abatement measures (including community agreements);
- Develop and implement their Noise Management Plans;
- Actively work together with aircraft operators to reduce ground noise;
- Coordinate aircraft schedules (slot management);
- Determine land-use and development (within the legislative framework) at airports;
- Manage local community engagement.
Airlines and aircraft operators:
- Comply with established aircraft noise standards and aircraft type for flight use, airport curfew and scheduling requirements;
- Comply with flight paths and established noise abatement procedures;
- Determine whether to adopt noise efficient aircraft design, technology and operating procedures;
- Participate in noise reduction plans and trials.
Airlines and industry (aircraft manufacturers):
- Contribute to noise reduction initiatives, including input into proposed noise abatement procedures;
- Design, apply and review noise abatement procedures together with air services and airports;
- Interdependencies assessment;
- Flight data analysis.
- Develop, design and publish Aeronautical Information Publications (AIP) and flight paths while following established rules and procedures;
- Develop, design and publish certain kinds of noise abatement procedures after consulting with other stakeholders;
- Provide air traffic control services and manage aircraft departures and arrivals according to flight paths;
- Manage and control air traffic according to environmental restrictions regarding capacity, aircraft kinds, delay time, etc.
- Develop policy and create the regulatory framework for the aviation industry;
- Develop a national plan on management and control of aircraft noise (EU Regulation 598/2014);
- Process and approval of specific regulations (airport curfews, certain activities and development in airports – reverse use, preferential runways, etc.);
- Regulate and oversee the management of national airports;
- Oversee the regional and local government regarding the planning, development and land-use of the airport and its surroundings;
- Represent its country at the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and Committee on Aviation Environment Protection (CAEP).
- Certificate aircraft for complying with noise standards;
- Approval and validation for the implementation of new technologies;
- Oversee the flight paths and noise abatement procedures;
- Regulate safety-related activities that affect any measures to reduce noise;
- Ensure that proposed changes to the airspace adequately consider environmental implications.
- Define and approve country noise regulations for minor and major airports;
- Define and approve aviation activities (leisure and training) and types of aircraft (based on ICAO standards);
- Define and approve noise limits in consideration of urban areas, infrastructure and activities;
- Define and approve the methodology and conditions for calculating noise forecast, noise contours and noise measurements.
- Manage land-use planning around airports and under flight paths;
- Work in partnership with airports to ensure zoning accuracy with noise exposure information;
- Manage small airports (including airports with flight training and helicopter operations);
- Facilitate access to relevant information and provide advice.
- Choose housing location and house improvements (for instance, noise insulation);
- Insist on full disclosure by vendors and intermediaries;
- Participate in communication forums, bring forward their views and contribute to the management of noise issues affecting their community;
- Educate themselves on aircraft noise exposure near airports and under flight paths;
- Suggest ideas for noise reduction improvement in the communication forums.
(for example, environmental department at the airport or environmental department at the air services)
- Undertake noise monitoring (for example, use Noise and Flight Path Monitoring System);
- Provide noise information services, reports, factsheets and other documentation about aircraft noise and flight operations;
- Provide help for reporting and resolving complaints;
- Analyse trends and identify issues to address;
- Participate in communication and technical noise forums, present relevant information;
- Proactively seek improved noise outcomes for the community;
- Prepare Aircraft Noise Exposure (ANE) forecasts (noise footprints for future scenarios) to support land-use planning, write reports about ANE of the previous years in order to control noise exposure;
- Control curfew periods and noise rules and provide reports to the authorities.