- Experience from other airports
- Noise management interventions
- Change in the spatial distribution of noise
Change in the spatial distribution of the noise is usually to avoid centres of population density and, therefore, reduce the number of people exposed to noise. Interventions to achieve this can include noise preferential routes, overflight avoidance, curved approaches, new runways, restrictions to avoid overflying specific areas. In these cases, noise is often re-distributed (i.e. some communities have reduced noise exposure and others increased exposure).