- Experience from other airports
- Noise management interventions
All aircraft noise management interventions are intended to reduce noise impacts (e.g. annoyance, sleep disturbance and long-term health effects); however, their initial purpose varies. These purposes include:
- Reduction of overall noise footprint
- Change in the spatial distribution of noise
- Protect people from noise exposure
- Addressing non-acoustic factors
Reduction of overall noise footprint - through inherently quieter aircraft, quieter operational procedures (reduced noise output and/or increased separation from the ground by optimising departure profiles – e.g. NADP1/2) and general (i.e. capacity) operating restrictions. In these cases, noise exposure at all locations is reduced.
Change in the spatial distribution of noise is usually to avoid centres of population density and, therefore, reduce the number of people exposed to noise. Interventions to achieve this can include noise preferential routes, overflight avoidance, curved approaches, new runways, restrictions to avoid overflying specific areas. In these cases, noise is often re-distributed (i.e. some communities have reduced noise exposure and others increased exposure).
Protect people from noise exposure – changing the propagation of noise, i.e. through insulation, noise barriers, building design, noise zoning to prevent encroachment of noise-sensitive building occupations and buy-outs of properties and to keep noise-sensitive developments away from noise (land-use planning). Requires early planning. Multi-stakeholder engagement to educate planners and local authorities (implies potential trade-offs with local economies).
Directly addressing non-acoustic factors known to exacerbate immediate impacts such as annoyance and sleep disturbance – this is usually achieved through enhanced communication and engagement either as part of a noise management intervention or as a separated dedicated communication/engagement activity intended to improve airport-community relationships, perceptions of fairness/control, etc. Examples include improvement noise metrics to enhance community comprehension, general availability of noise/operational information, efforts to include affected communities in noise management decisions, and community engagement in influencing airport benefits’ distribution. Options can also include the provision of compensation for community noise exposure.