- Understanding aviation noise
- Noise annoyance management
- Noise reduction at source
This is primarily achieved through improvements in engine and airframe technology demanded by airlines and delivered by the aerospace manufacturing sector. However, airports can have an impact on noise reduction at source via noise-related operational charges or operating restrictions, which may encourage airlines to utilise quieter aircraft.
Evidence of this was found at several EU airports, for instance:
- Gatwick, Heathrow and Frankfurt airports incentivise A320 retrofit through either voluntary schemes or through additional charges/fines;
- Noise based charging or fines (or a noise factor in the charge per aircraft) is the norm for large European airports – it is either based on certified or measured noise. For instance, Heathrow Airport charges loudest aircraft ten times as much as it charges the quietest aircraft. Additionally, Heathrow Airport has included aircraft chapter within its Fly Quiet program;
- Incentive schemes for quieter aircraft were found at Schiphol Airport (Amsterdam), with rewards applied per arrival or departure if marginally compliant aircraft are replaced.