- Understanding aviation noise
- Noise annoyance management
- Operating restrictions
The most commonly used operating restriction reported in Europe is the ban on Chapter 2 aircraft. Airports such as Paris Charles de Gaulle and Frankfurt also limit the operation of marginally compliant Chapter 3 aircraft in the overnight period.
In terms of night flight restrictions, the night period generally ranges between 22:00 h or 23:00 h and 04:00 h and 07:00 h and has implications for curfews, charges and quotas. Night restrictions focus on noise and are based on a number of criteria, for instance, noise certification (marginally compliant Chapter 3 aircraft are banned at Amsterdam), quota systems (for instance at Brussels, Gatwick, Heathrow, Madrid) and movement limits (Amsterdam, Gatwick, Heathrow).
Restrictions on noisier aircraft during the night period, or periods before or after the night period were found at some airports, whilst Amsterdam, Charles de Gaulle, Madrid, Heathrow and Gatwick were amongst the airports which apply higher charges for the aircraft operating during the night period or make use of a night noise surcharge. Several restrictions referred to on-the-ground noise sources, namely Auxiliary Power Units, engine testing and run-up restrictions.